Welcome to the Piano World Piano Forums
Over 2 million posts about pianos, digital pianos, and all types of keyboard instruments
Join the World's Largest Community of Piano Lovers (it's free)
It's Fun to Play the Piano ... Please Pass It On!

SEARCH
the Forums & Piano World

This custom search works much better than the built in one and allows searching older posts.
(ad 125) Sweetwater - Digital Keyboards & Other Gear
Digital Pianos at Sweetwater
(ad) Pearl River
Pearl River Pianos
(ad) Pianoteq
Latest Pianoteq add-on instrument: U4 upright piano
(ad) P B Guide
Acoustic & Digital Piano Guide
PianoSupplies.com (150)
Piano Accessories Music Related Gifts Piano Tuning Equipment Piano Moving Equipment
We now offer Gift Certificates in our online store!
(ad) Estonia Piano
Estonia Piano
Quick Links to Useful Stuff
Our Classified Ads
Find Piano Professionals-

*Piano Dealers - Piano Stores
*Piano Tuners
*Piano Teachers
*Piano Movers
*Piano Restorations
*Piano Manufacturers
*Organs

Quick Links:
*Advertise On Piano World
*Free Piano Newsletter
*Online Piano Recitals
*Piano Recitals Index
*Piano Accessories
* Buying a Piano
*Buying A Acoustic Piano
*Buying a Digital Piano
*Pianos for Sale
*Sell Your Piano
*How Old is My Piano?
*Piano Books
*Piano Art, Pictures, & Posters
*Directory/Site Map
*Contest
*Links
*Virtual Piano
*Music Word Search
*Piano Screen Saver
*Piano Videos
*Virtual Piano Chords
Page 63 of 71 < 1 2 ... 61 62 63 64 65 ... 70 71 >
Topic Options
#1993108 - 12/01/12 08:10 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Jerry Groot RPT Offline
6000 Post Club Member

Registered: 11/07/07
Posts: 6828
Loc: Grand Rapids Michigan
You mean, that didn't "Dawn" on you David??? smile
_________________________
Jerry Groot RPT
Piano Technicians Guild
Grand Rapids, Michigan
www.grootpiano.com

We love to play BF2.

Top
(ad PTG 568) Grand Action Regulation in 37 Steps
Grand Action Regulation in 37 Steps
#1993119 - 12/01/12 08:38 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
David Jenson Online   content
2000 Post Club Member

Registered: 10/22/06
Posts: 2098
Loc: Maine
Nope. I was kinda' "In the Dark" ... so-to-speak.
_________________________
David L. Jenson
Tuning - Repairs - Refurbishing
Jenson's Piano Service
-----

Top
#1993240 - 12/01/12 02:39 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Silverwood Pianos Offline
4000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/10/08
Posts: 4190
Loc: Vancouver B. C. Canada

Inside a piano I serviced today there was a sticker with a signature from a fellow called Bill Faber. Apparently he was the cabinet designer and was a member of the Grand Rapids Furniture Designers Association.
I had no idea that Grand Rapids was a furniture design hotspot. Jerry, can you add anything further to that?
_________________________
Dan Silverwood
www.silverwoodpianos.com
http://silverwoodpianos.blogspot.com/
http://www.facebook.com/SilverwoodPianosDotCom
"If you think it's expensive to hire a professional to do the job, wait until you hire an amateur."

Top
#1993390 - 12/01/12 08:28 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Jerry Groot RPT Offline
6000 Post Club Member

Registered: 11/07/07
Posts: 6828
Loc: Grand Rapids Michigan
Well David, as Motel 6 used to say, "I'll leave the light on for ya until the crack of dawn."

Hi Dan,

Early Grand Rapids earned the nickname "the furniture city," because it was the first center of mass-produced furniture in North America.

http://www.grmuseum.org/exhibits/furniture_city

William Haldane opened a cabinet shop in 1836, 14 years before Grand Rapids incorporated. Other furniture companies followed: Berkey and Gay, Widdicomb, Sligh, Hekman, and Phoenix were among those taking advantage of the Grand River for transportation and power, the area's abundant hardwood supply, and a growing immigrant labor pool. The furniture soon attracted national attention.

In 1876, the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition proved conclusively that a river town in Michigan had indeed earned the title "Furniture City." Presidents Herbert Hoover, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, and Dwight D. Eisenhower all worked at Grand Rapids-made desks. Fifteen manufacturers joined forces to build 1,000 Handley Page bombers during World War I. The Japanese Instrument of Surrender was signed on September 2, 1945, at a table made in Grand Rapids. Despite fires, floods, strikes, depressions, and wars, Grand Rapids led the industry until the 1950s and 1960s, when the factories began moving to North Carolina. Today the area, along with nearby Holland and Zeeland, dominates the office furniture industry.

Here are a couple of interesting articles about Grand Rapids. There is a LOT more to our city than meets the eye. We are extremely well diversified.

http://www.midwestguest.com/2012/02/grand-rapids-michigan-the-furniture-city.html

http://grcity.us/design-and-development-...iture-City.aspx

I've been feeling great lately so I'm working harder. Feels nice to be able to work harder again!
_________________________
Jerry Groot RPT
Piano Technicians Guild
Grand Rapids, Michigan
www.grootpiano.com

We love to play BF2.

Top
#1993483 - 12/02/12 01:53 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
BDB Offline
Yikes! 10000 Post Club Member

Registered: 06/07/03
Posts: 21513
Loc: Oakland
It does not rain much in sunny California, but we had a fair amount, by our standards, of liquid sunshine today. I had a show to tune for at one of the great theaters in San Francisco, and while I was tuning, some of that liquid began falling on me. I pointed that out to the stage manager. Upon further inspection, some of it had fallen into the monitor mixing board, causing it to flake out. Fortunately, experience leads to preparation, and there was a hair dryer available. I had a broken string to replace while they dried out the monitor board, which held the doors for a while, delaying an onstage interview with the headliner. But everything went well, and the show came off with no further hitches.

The theater is due for retrofitting beginning next year, so some of the maintenance is probably not up to snuff. My house is the same way, as we work with the architects to get our own retrofit launched.
_________________________
Semipro Tech

Top
#1993501 - 12/02/12 02:59 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: BDB]
rxd Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/11/09
Posts: 1707
Loc: London, England
Originally Posted By: BDB
It does not rain much in sunny California, but we had a fair amount, by our standards, of liquid sunshine today. I had a show to tune for at one of the great theaters in San Francisco, and while I was tuning, some of that liquid began falling on me. I pointed that out to the stage manager. Upon further inspection, some of it had fallen into the monitor mixing board, causing it to flake out. Fortunately, experience leads to preparation, and there was a hair dryer available. I had a broken string to replace while they dried out the monitor board, which held the doors for a while, delaying an onstage interview with the headliner. But everything went well, and the show came off with no further hitches.

The theater is due for retrofitting beginning next year, so some of the maintenance is probably not up to snuff. My house is the same way, as we work with the architects to get our own retrofit launched.


Sounds like the arts in SF are in a pretty sorry state. You paint a picture of a ramshackle affair with the roof leaking and the piano overdue for restringing in one of its great theatres.

Has the economy hit hard there too?
_________________________
Concert & Recording tuner-tech, London, England.
"in theory, practice and theory are the same thing. In practice, they're not." - Lawrence P. 'Yogi' Berra.

Eschew obfuscation.



Top
#1993503 - 12/02/12 03:18 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
BDB Offline
Yikes! 10000 Post Club Member

Registered: 06/07/03
Posts: 21513
Loc: Oakland
Well, the theater's piano is overdue for restringing, but we were using an Artist Reserve instrument from Yamaha. As I said, the theater is in a building which is going to be retrofitted for seismic upgrades. It is a very historical theater, of international importance, so the retrofit will undoubtedly be done with much loving care.

Tomorrow may be my last show there, as the group I tune for is putting the finishing touches on their own theater, and I was just informed that they have taken my advice, and will be getting two new concert grands for it. The new theater will take some of the load during the retrofit.

If, as I hope, I can get my retrofit done before the theater's, I may take in their piano and restring it. Their retrofit is slated to take 2 years. I do not have space for it now, but I will after my house is reworked.

I have another show for a different organization Monday, a dance company who has built their own theater and school in recent years. So I would say that the arts are doing reasonably well around here.
_________________________
Semipro Tech

Top
#1993540 - 12/02/12 07:32 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Ryan Hassell Offline
Full Member

Registered: 07/07/09
Posts: 467
Loc: Farmington, MO
BDB,

I didn't realize you were in the northern California area. I graduated from Golden Gate Seminary in Mill Valley back in 1997. Coming from rural southeast Missouri, California was a change for me, but I really enjoyed it. Lived out there for about three years. While in seminary, I worked as the music director over in Concord at Bethel Baptist Church. I still have a lot of dear friends that I have not seen in years. May have to make a trip sometime.
_________________________
Ryan G. Hassell
Hassell's Piano Tuning
Farmington, MO
www.hassellspianotuning.com
http://www.facebook.com/pages/Hassells-Piano-Tuning/163155880804
ryanhassell@hotmail.com

Top
#1993547 - 12/02/12 07:58 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
rxd Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/11/09
Posts: 1707
Loc: London, England
I have fond memories of the Orpheum. Wonderful building. Glad to hear the arts are still thriving in SF. I suppose being surrounded by water has its problems for pianos.
_________________________
Concert & Recording tuner-tech, London, England.
"in theory, practice and theory are the same thing. In practice, they're not." - Lawrence P. 'Yogi' Berra.

Eschew obfuscation.



Top
#1993567 - 12/02/12 09:26 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Jerry Groot RPT Offline
6000 Post Club Member

Registered: 11/07/07
Posts: 6828
Loc: Grand Rapids Michigan
I'm so busy right now that I'm working Saturday's too. I tuned 4 yesterday. Next week I'm tuning no less than 4 a day, 5 and 6 on some days, 6 next week Saturday etc., until December 16th when I"m taking the rest of this month off.

I'm trying to limit myself to only 4 a day but, that sure is hard to do!!! I'm booked solid through January 28th right now and have been. Nice feeling to be so busy! smile

I also acquired 3 new churches in the past 10 days. They weren't happy with their previous technician and so I got the call. smile
_________________________
Jerry Groot RPT
Piano Technicians Guild
Grand Rapids, Michigan
www.grootpiano.com

We love to play BF2.

Top
#1993698 - 12/02/12 02:48 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Silverwood Pianos Offline
4000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/10/08
Posts: 4190
Loc: Vancouver B. C. Canada
Interesting links about Grand Rapids, which you have posted Jerry. I had no idea as I am not familiar with that area of the US, thanks for the history lesson.

Very busy here too... working even today... glad to read that you are getting back to a more regular schedule...
_________________________
Dan Silverwood
www.silverwoodpianos.com
http://silverwoodpianos.blogspot.com/
http://www.facebook.com/SilverwoodPianosDotCom
"If you think it's expensive to hire a professional to do the job, wait until you hire an amateur."

Top
#1993706 - 12/02/12 03:06 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
BDB Offline
Yikes! 10000 Post Club Member

Registered: 06/07/03
Posts: 21513
Loc: Oakland
Edna Ferber wrote one of her epics about a lumber baron in Michigan, Come And Get It. It is worth a read.
_________________________
Semipro Tech

Top
#1993739 - 12/02/12 03:47 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Jerry Groot RPT Offline
6000 Post Club Member

Registered: 11/07/07
Posts: 6828
Loc: Grand Rapids Michigan
I read a book, I think it's called "Tall Pines".. I think.. All about being a lumberman up around Kalkaska, near Manistee Lake where my cottages are at. The guy that wrote the book is buried up there in Cold Springs Twp. I can't look up the name because the book is setting in one of the cottages but it sure was interesting. He talked about dances, fires, when the lumber started running dry, buying one of the first places around our lake etc.
_________________________
Jerry Groot RPT
Piano Technicians Guild
Grand Rapids, Michigan
www.grootpiano.com

We love to play BF2.

Top
#1994009 - 12/03/12 07:20 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
UnrightTooner Online   content
4000 Post Club Member

Registered: 11/13/08
Posts: 4938
Loc: Bradford County, PA
Spent a week at Deer Camp. One guy killed a 7-pointer by shooting it through the base of the antler. Go figure!
_________________________
Jeff Deutschle
Part-Time Tuner
Who taught the first chicken how to peck?

Top
#1994021 - 12/03/12 07:57 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Jerry Groot RPT Offline
6000 Post Club Member

Registered: 11/07/07
Posts: 6828
Loc: Grand Rapids Michigan
And, now many points does he get for that?
_________________________
Jerry Groot RPT
Piano Technicians Guild
Grand Rapids, Michigan
www.grootpiano.com

We love to play BF2.

Top
#1994944 - 12/05/12 09:36 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Silverwood Pianos Offline
4000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/10/08
Posts: 4190
Loc: Vancouver B. C. Canada

maybe 7?
_________________________
Dan Silverwood
www.silverwoodpianos.com
http://silverwoodpianos.blogspot.com/
http://www.facebook.com/SilverwoodPianosDotCom
"If you think it's expensive to hire a professional to do the job, wait until you hire an amateur."

Top
#1994953 - 12/05/12 10:09 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
UnrightTooner Online   content
4000 Post Club Member

Registered: 11/13/08
Posts: 4938
Loc: Bradford County, PA
Officially only 3 or 4, depending on which antler was shot off. Unofficially about 147 "luck" points. About the same for the flying grouse I hit with a .22 the other year.
_________________________
Jeff Deutschle
Part-Time Tuner
Who taught the first chicken how to peck?

Top
#1995240 - 12/05/12 10:06 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Supply Offline
3000 Post Club Member

Registered: 09/11/06
Posts: 3919
Loc: Vancouver Island, BC, Canada
Today I tuned a cute-as-a-button German Knake mini grand from about 1910. The case is semi-circular in the back. These are pictures of an identical piano.
34 notes in the bass, a total of 66 wound strings.



_________________________
Jurgen Goering
Piano Forte Supply
www.pianofortesupply.com

Piattino Caster Cups distributor

Top
#1995396 - 12/06/12 10:36 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
David, Las Vegas Offline
Full Member

Registered: 10/07/08
Posts: 211
Loc: Las Vegas, Nevada
Oh , I love this! What a great display of engineering and artistic designs. Thanks for the pictures! The field of wound strings covers almost half the plate! How is tenor tone and sustain?
_________________________
David Chadwick RPT
Las Vegas, Nevada
1923 Steinway "M"
1931 Mason Hamlin AA

Top
#1995528 - 12/06/12 03:50 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Silverwood Pianos Offline
4000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/10/08
Posts: 4190
Loc: Vancouver B. C. Canada

Cute little grand Jurgen. I have never come across one of those.


Tuned an early Nordheimer this morning where middle C was three full tones flat. Not sure how many cents that is but must more than half the tension load over the whole frame.
_________________________
Dan Silverwood
www.silverwoodpianos.com
http://silverwoodpianos.blogspot.com/
http://www.facebook.com/SilverwoodPianosDotCom
"If you think it's expensive to hire a professional to do the job, wait until you hire an amateur."

Top
#1996562 - 12/08/12 07:25 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
BDB Offline
Yikes! 10000 Post Club Member

Registered: 06/07/03
Posts: 21513
Loc: Oakland
Dance Along Nutcracker!
_________________________
Semipro Tech

Top
#1996833 - 12/09/12 09:46 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: BDB]
rxd Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/11/09
Posts: 1707
Loc: London, England
Originally Posted By: BDB
Dance Along Nutcracker!


Thanks, BDB. That conjured up quite an image in my mind and gave me a good belly laugh.
_________________________
Concert & Recording tuner-tech, London, England.
"in theory, practice and theory are the same thing. In practice, they're not." - Lawrence P. 'Yogi' Berra.

Eschew obfuscation.



Top
#1996875 - 12/09/12 11:19 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
BDB Offline
Yikes! 10000 Post Club Member

Registered: 06/07/03
Posts: 21513
Loc: Oakland
To be more exact, I did not dance at it, I just tuned a piano for it. I went to a different dinner dance yesterday evening.
_________________________
Semipro Tech

Top
#1996882 - 12/09/12 11:35 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: BDB]
rxd Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/11/09
Posts: 1707
Loc: London, England
Originally Posted By: BDB
To be more exact, I did not dance at it, I just tuned a piano for it. I went to a different dinner dance yesterday evening.


Only in Ca. More specifically, SF.

I thInk it's a brIlliant idea. I'll see if I can promote one here for next year.
_________________________
Concert & Recording tuner-tech, London, England.
"in theory, practice and theory are the same thing. In practice, they're not." - Lawrence P. 'Yogi' Berra.

Eschew obfuscation.



Top
#1997136 - 12/09/12 10:19 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
woodfab Offline
Full Member

Registered: 12/06/05
Posts: 367
Loc: Stoneham, MA
I was planning to drive in new bridge pins but!

For some reason I have a tenant who thought she could wash a potted plant down the bath tub drain.

And now for some reason the drain is plugged up with dirt and rocks, NOT COOL.

So far three hours of snaking and plunging and no luck.

How could anyone think that's would be a GOOD IDEA?
_________________________
Dan (Piano Tinkerer)

Top
#1997412 - 12/10/12 03:34 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
rxd Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/11/09
Posts: 1707
Loc: London, England
Tuned a 9' today in the labyrinth of tunnels underneath Waterloo station. They built a boating lake under there just for tonight. Pity they put the piano right next to it.
Many major concert artists are playing there tonite. Some kind of fundraiser.
_________________________
Concert & Recording tuner-tech, London, England.
"in theory, practice and theory are the same thing. In practice, they're not." - Lawrence P. 'Yogi' Berra.

Eschew obfuscation.



Top
#1997788 - 12/11/12 09:08 AM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
James Carney Offline
Full Member

Registered: 07/30/10
Posts: 440
Loc: new york city
Spent 17 hours over two days working on a late 1800s 7'5" Steinway C for a Manhattan recording studio. The piano was completely rebuilt 20-30 years ago and new hammers, shanks, and flanges installed probably 5 years ago. (Steinway hammers with gobs of lacquer applied.) Hammers were flattened out with deep string cuts, open strings everywhere and it lacked power and focus. Before I did the work it was not an easy instrument to tune.

I repinned all 88 (very loose) hammer flanges, traveled about 25 shanks, reglued 10 loose hammer heads, reshaped and aligned the hammers, seated bridge pins, leveled strings, adjusted jack position which was curiously all over the place, rep lever height, letoff and drop. I tuned it, and did hours of string/hammer mating and voicing. Bedding, key leveling, dip, and even hammer blow were already good and very consistent which saved lots of time. Still need to go back for some finishing touches on rep springs and dampers. Amazing how much easier and faster it is to tune now...

I've only tuned a few model C instruments before, and had never worked on one as extensively as this. It might even be my favorite Steinway as it seems to combine the best aspects of the B and D into a well balanced piano - wonder why NY stopped making it.
_________________________
Keyboardist & Composer, Piano Technician
www.jamescarney.net
http://jamescarneypianotuning.wordpress.com/

Top
#1998502 - 12/12/12 05:35 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: James Carney]
Silverwood Pianos Offline
4000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/10/08
Posts: 4190
Loc: Vancouver B. C. Canada
Originally Posted By: James Carney

I've only tuned a few model C instruments before, and had never worked on one as extensively as this. It might even be my favorite Steinway as it seems to combine the best aspects of the B and D into a well balanced piano - wonder why NY stopped making it.


I always thought the C model was made in Hamburg only.
_________________________
Dan Silverwood
www.silverwoodpianos.com
http://silverwoodpianos.blogspot.com/
http://www.facebook.com/SilverwoodPianosDotCom
"If you think it's expensive to hire a professional to do the job, wait until you hire an amateur."

Top
#1998509 - 12/12/12 05:46 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
BDB Offline
Yikes! 10000 Post Club Member

Registered: 06/07/03
Posts: 21513
Loc: Oakland
They stopped making Steinway Cs in New York a long time ago, although there may have been some made up until the beginning of WWII.
_________________________
Semipro Tech

Top
#1998513 - 12/12/12 05:50 PM Re: So, what did you do today? [Re: Sam Casey]
Silverwood Pianos Offline
4000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/10/08
Posts: 4190
Loc: Vancouver B. C. Canada

Good to know, thanks for the heads up BDB.
_________________________
Dan Silverwood
www.silverwoodpianos.com
http://silverwoodpianos.blogspot.com/
http://www.facebook.com/SilverwoodPianosDotCom
"If you think it's expensive to hire a professional to do the job, wait until you hire an amateur."

Top
Page 63 of 71 < 1 2 ... 61 62 63 64 65 ... 70 71 >

Moderator:  Piano World 
What's Hot!!
HOW TO POST PICTURES on the Piano Forums
-------------------
Sharing is Caring!
About the Buttons
-------------------
Forums Rules & Help
-------------------
ADVERTISE
on Piano World

The world's most popular piano web site.
-------------------
PIANO BOOKS
Interesting books about the piano, pianists, piano history, biographies, memoirs and more!
(ad) HAILUN Pianos
Hailun Pianos - Click for More
ad (Casio)
Celviano by Casio Rebate
Ad (Seiler/Knabe)
Seiler Pianos
Sheet Music
(PW is an affiliate)
Sheet Music Plus Featured Sale
(125ad) Dampp Chaser
Dampp Chaser Piano Life Saver
(ad) Lindeblad Piano
Lindeblad Piano Restoration
New Topics - Multiple Forums
Associate Diploma repertoire
by lacrymosa85
09/17/14 07:55 AM
Questions for those that use dremel for hammer shaping.
by UnrightTooner
09/17/14 07:29 AM
Pianoteq vs Digital Piano vs Acoustic Piano
by wildpig
09/16/14 11:57 PM
Baldwin Hamilton 1941
by JMN12
09/16/14 11:13 PM
Tucson, AZ: Is Arizona Room a bad place for a piano?
by Paul678
09/16/14 08:14 PM
Who's Online
122 registered (accordeur, ajames, allakart, *windowlicker*, 33 invisible), 1256 Guests and 17 Spiders online.
Key: Admin, Global Mod, Mod
Forum Stats
76230 Members
42 Forums
157575 Topics
2314594 Posts

Max Online: 15252 @ 03/21/10 11:39 PM
(ads by Google)

Visit our online store for gifts for music lovers

 
Help keep the forums up and running with a donation, any amount is appreciated!
Or by becoming a Subscribing member! Thank-you.
Donate   Subscribe
 
Our Piano Related Classified Ads
|
Dealers | Tuners | Lessons | Movers | Restorations | Pianos For Sale | Sell Your Piano |

Advertise on Piano World
| Subscribe | Piano World | PianoSupplies.com | Advertise on Piano World | Donate | Link to Us | Classifieds |
| |Contact | Privacy | Legal | About Us | Site Map | Free Newsletter | Press Room |


copyright 1997 - 2014 Piano World ® all rights reserved
No part of this site may be reproduced without prior written permission