Are these broken chords of some kind, what exactly are they?
Yes, they are broken chords.
c-g-c is a C chord and the e (third is dropped)
d-a-d is a D chord and the F# (third is dropped)
The first chord in the video:
notes Gb-Db-Gb is a Gb chord. The "A" in the melody confirms it as Gb minor chord. Then the next chord, D-A-D and A-D in melody is a D chord.
but wait it gets deeper
Actually, you could call all of the above by different names. But, the easiest way (without getting overly convoluted) is to use the lowest note in your bass as the letter name for these chords, as above.
Yes, you can play them differently. But so far most of these chords (in the brief examples above,) have not been confirmed as major or minor. That is, there is no major or minor third to confirm if it is major or minor. I think major though, so minor is going to work so well.
I'm sure, you will get better advice on how to approach this, but hope this gives you something to think about in the meantime.