After you play enough scales the numbers don't matter, you just know...
Exactly, I hated playing mind numbing scales. But they have a purpose! Start by playing the first 5 notes up and down, first slowly then build up speed until you can do every minor and major key in both hands very fast.
Then mix it up play arpeggio chords patterns in one hand and the scale in the other like this example:
LH: 1-3-5-3-1-3-5 RH:1-2-3-4-5-5-4-3-2-1
LH: 1-3b-5-3b-1-3b RH:1-2-3b-4-5-4-3b-2-1
Mix it up try alternating major & minor.
Then go through 8 notes scales, then chromatic runs to and from a target note say the tonic.
These will not only make your hands just know where to go, you will develop speed, accuracy and hand independence.
First of all make it fun try and see how many different variations you can do.
Just do that kind of warmup for about 10 minutes a day along with your normal practice regiment and learning to play songs and after a month or so you won't even have to think about which notes to play. Then start trying to improvise and make up stuff using various chords. Pick a key and play various chords and scales in those keys until you find what sounds good to you.
The chords to any key can be found HERE.
Then you can do the same with modal scales in various keys.
It will be very slow going at first but after awhile you develop a keen sense of what notes go with a key and how to move out of simple chord progressions. And what effect different scales and extended chords have.
Just try this 10-15 minutes a day, after a year you will notice a dramatic improvement.
There is a couple of DVD's available at http://www.pianowithwillie.com/
called 'faster fingers' that prescribes these type finger exercises. This is the exact same method I was taught by my teacher and it works!
It is not a secret formula and not meant to replace studying theory. It is for putting that theory into your fingers, arms and wrists muscle memory! Remember to use good technique!
There are sources online for the proper way to play scales and arpeggios.