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#2057637 - 04/01/13 03:04 AM Resonant Hammershank Voicing
Del Offline
5000 Post Club Member

Registered: 09/04/03
Posts: 5335
Loc: Olympia, Washington
I’ve been installing Wessel, Nickel & Gross action parts for some time now. I consider them to be a significant step forward in the ongoing developing development of the piano action. In particular I like the hammer shanks and I have now discovered a heretofore unknown benefit—the hammershanks themselves can be “voiced” to enhance the tone performance of the piano.

The thought occurred to me, as I was gluing hammers to the Wessel, Nickel & Gross carbon fiber shanks, that what we have here is a finite cylindrical pipe. In other words, the hammershank itself forms a cylinder with a fixed internal diameter and a finite length. When a flow of air is passed over the open end of a finite cylindrical pipe—i.e., as when a note is played and the hammer is accelerating toward the strings—it causes the air within the pipe to resonate at a pitch determined by the diameter and the length of the cylinder and this pitch is, to some extent, tunable.

The internal diameter of these hammershanks is fixed but we can still change their resonant frequency by changing the length of the pipe and this can be done by partially filling it with some rigid material such as epoxy. This has to be done carefully to get just the right pitch in the resonating pipe. (A good overview on the character of finite cylindrical pipes and calculating their pitch is given in The Physics of Musical Instruments by Fletcher & Rossing.) The principle here is to match the pitch of these resonating pipes to the frequency of one of the resonating partials in the strings. (As supplied by Wessel, Nickel & Gross their pitch does not reinforce the pitch of the notes played and, indeed, may detract from it.) These resonating pipes are tunable to a certain extent by trial and error; if you put just a bit too much epoxy into the hollow hammershank and get its pitch a little high you can always drill it out—albeit with some difficulty—to lower the pitch of the generated tone.

The volume of the tone generated by the resonating column of air in the hammershank/pipe is directly proportional to the velocity of the hammershank hence it is advantageous to keep the mass of the hammers low and, by extension, their potential velocity high. It is fortuitous that the volume of the tone generated by a moving finite cylindrical pipes is relatively low at pianissimo velocities and somewhat louder at forte levels of play thus the tone generated by the moving pipes appropriately and automatically reinforces the tone created by the hammers and strings across the power spectrum of the piano.

Obviously my work to date with Resonant Hammershank Voicing is in its early stages and has, thus far, only scratched the surface; much work remains to be done before we can exploit the full potential of this new technology. There are at least two areas that have already revealed a need for more research: 1) Shank protrusion, by allowing the hammershank to protrude slightly beyond the hammer molding seems to reduce the air turbulence immediately adjacent to the hammer molding making the tone generated by the resonant pipe clearer and stronger, and 2) Hammer shape, the shape of the hammer affects the flow of air around the felted portion of the hammer and this can affect the flow of air past the opening in the resonant pipe (if the airflow is not clean and smooth a certain amount of “falseness” can be detected in the resonant tone).

As well, new shapes for the hammershanks themselves should be explored to better match the tone generated by the resonant pipes to the natural voice of the piano. If the weight of the carbon fiber hammershanks can be kept low enough, for example, it would be interesting to explore hammershank shapes approaching that of a true Helmholtz resonator. Since it is often claimed—albeit probably incorrectly—that Helmholtz influenced the design of the early Steinway pianos this would finally bring the relationship between Helmholtz and the piano full circle.

ddf
_________________________
Delwin D Fandrich
Piano Research, Design & Manufacturing Consultant
ddfandrich@gmail.com
(To contact me privately please use this e-mail address.)

Stupidity is a rare condition, ignorance is a common choice. --Anon

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#2057643 - 04/01/13 03:54 AM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
BDB Offline
Yikes! 10000 Post Club Member

Registered: 06/07/03
Posts: 21943
Loc: Oakland
Such a system would require some delicate climate control, as the resonant frequency of these shanks would depend on the temperature. Humidity control might conflict. Should Don Gilmore's self-tuning piano ever become a popular option, there could be an additional problem.

There would also be some minor redesign of the action necessary to accommodate the differing lengths of the shanks necessary. Epoxy and drilling only go so far. To maintain the same relationship throughout the range of the piano, eventually the shanks must double in length every octave. You might run into some problems fitting in the shanks for the lowest notes of the piano.
_________________________
Semipro Tech

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#2057645 - 04/01/13 03:59 AM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
Olek Offline
7000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/14/08
Posts: 7904
Loc: France
Hello Del , that was fun to read ! I imagine you could also drill holes in the shanks as on a flute, then close some of them depending of the wanted voicing wink

I may say I had some success with perfect profiling of hammer felts

More seriously, is not the tone we hear when tapping on a hammershank the sign of the level of resiliency of the shank ? Despite years of subsequent analysis of pianos, I never have read any PTG info on sorting and tuning of shanks, may be considered as unnecessary (nor searching for "dead shanks" that happens due to a wood defect)

Thanks for noticing the resonance of the shanks are more neutral than the ones of wood. .

Inserting epoxy inside would directly impact shank stiffness .

The shank resiliency is part of the accumulator, in the piano action, as the keys, keybed stiffness, and hammer hysteresys...

Please if you can record those new "piano pipes" I would be interested to hear the level of tone provided ...

I have just a similar idea : after tuning each tuning pin is capped with a rigid tuned piece of wire, that will be exited by the waves. Other places may certainly be used, as plate pins...

Sorry to mix moods wink
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#2057660 - 04/01/13 06:38 AM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
ando Online   content
3000 Post Club Member

Registered: 11/23/10
Posts: 3715
Loc: Melbourne, Australia
Good one, Del wink

Happy April 1st!

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#2057672 - 04/01/13 07:42 AM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
miscrms Offline
Full Member

Registered: 12/29/12
Posts: 187
Loc: Phoenix, AZ
You totally had me smile

Thought you were off your rocker though wink

Very nicely done!

Rob


Edited by miscrms (04/01/13 07:42 AM)
_________________________
1874 Steinway Upright "Franken" Stein

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#2057678 - 04/01/13 07:54 AM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: miscrms]
Roy123 Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 09/20/04
Posts: 1725
Loc: Massachusetts
I hope you submitted a patent application before exposing this new technology to the public! ;-]

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#2057679 - 04/01/13 07:57 AM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
Zeno Wood Offline
Full Member

Registered: 11/20/07
Posts: 483
Loc: Brooklyn, NY
I've been having some interesting results with a new invention of my own which utitilizes the same principles but takes it a few steps farther. I fit a whistle-type reed into the end of the WNG shank, much like an organ pipe or train whistle. Then I drill a small hall in the base of the shank just below the knuckle. Using a steam generating device, I force the steam through the shank, and wire a controlling knob into the keyframe. The Dampp-Chaser reservoir tank is used as a kettle of sorts to generate said steam.

Del, my lawyer will be contacting you, as I have already applied for a patent on this innovation, and I believe your "work" here is infringing on my intellectual property.
_________________________
Zeno Wood, Piano Technician
Brooklyn College

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#2057684 - 04/01/13 08:30 AM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
RoyP Offline
500 Post Club Member

Registered: 12/10/03
Posts: 787
Loc: Cincinnati, Ohio
Nice.
_________________________
Roy Peters, RPT
Cincinnati, Ohio
www.cincypiano.com

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#2057737 - 04/01/13 11:18 AM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
AndyJ Offline
Full Member

Registered: 09/29/12
Posts: 219
Loc: Near Dayton, Ohio USA
Del,

Have you investigated the possible advantages of replacing solid pedal rods with tuned tubular ones? Now that I think of it, it's rather surprising this has never been explored before!

-Andy

p.s. April seems to have finally woken up the springtime here, something I always try to take note of on the 1st.

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#2057799 - 04/01/13 01:36 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
rysowers Offline
2000 Post Club Member

Registered: 04/16/07
Posts: 2513
Loc: Olympia, WA
Del,

This idea is even beyond Ed McMorrows True tempered watchmacallit duplex thingee! I think you are headed for a Nobel prize!
_________________________
Ryan Sowers,
Pianova Piano Service
Olympia, WA
www.pianova.net

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#2057800 - 04/01/13 01:37 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
Minnesota Marty Offline

Platinum Supporter until October 5 2014


Registered: 05/15/12
Posts: 7439
Loc: Rochester MN
Another improvement might be keyed key shanks, similar to a woodwind (or compositewind). A dual-pedal bellows mechanism could be employed to supply the air pressure needed for the shanks. Now that would be real progress!
_________________________
Marty in Minnesota

It's much easier to bash a Steinway than it is to play one.

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#2057819 - 04/01/13 02:27 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: rysowers]
Dale Fox Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 10/17/04
Posts: 1083
Loc: Nor California Sacramento area
Originally Posted By: rysowers
Del,

This idea is even beyond Ed McMorrows True tempered watchmacallit duplex thingee! I think you are headed for a Nobel prize!


Which, I'm sure, will be awarded exactly one year from today!
_________________________
Dale Fox
Registered Piano Technician
Remanufacturing/Rebuilding

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#2057830 - 04/01/13 02:53 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
kpembrook Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 04/06/10
Posts: 1352
Loc: Michigan
I'm sure the date of the posting has nothing to do with the content.
laugh laugh
_________________________
Keith Akins, RPT
USA Distributor for Isaac Cadenza hammers and Profundo Bass Strings
Supporting Piano Owners D-I-Y piano tuning and repair

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#2057832 - 04/01/13 02:54 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
Gene Nelson Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 09/10/04
Posts: 1534
Loc: Old Hangtown California
Insert reeds.
Epoxy changed the touchweight.
_________________________
RPT
PTG Member

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#2057842 - 04/01/13 03:13 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
Minnesota Marty Offline

Platinum Supporter until October 5 2014


Registered: 05/15/12
Posts: 7439
Loc: Rochester MN
I reed that Stanwood has done this before. Is the action the new Delmonium Patent Action used in the Syrinx & Sohne?
_________________________
Marty in Minnesota

It's much easier to bash a Steinway than it is to play one.

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#2057863 - 04/01/13 03:39 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Zeno Wood]
Del Offline
5000 Post Club Member

Registered: 09/04/03
Posts: 5335
Loc: Olympia, Washington
Originally Posted By: Zeno Wood
I've been having some interesting results with a new invention of my own which utitilizes the same principles but takes it a few steps farther. I fit a whistle-type reed into the end of the WNG shank, much like an organ pipe or train whistle. Then I drill a small hall in the base of the shank just below the knuckle. Using a steam generating device, I force the steam through the shank, and wire a controlling knob into the keyframe. The Dampp-Chaser reservoir tank is used as a kettle of sorts to generate said steam.

Del, my lawyer will be contacting you, as I have already applied for a patent on this innovation, and I believe your "work" here is infringing on my intellectual property.

You can call off the lawyers. We have already tried—and abandoned—the notion of using steam to generate the requisite enhanced tones. In fact, we carried the idea much further; we directing the jet of steam downward to assist in accelerating the hammers toward the strings thereby reducing the overall touchweight of the action.

Unfortunately one of the secretaries saw the steam rising from the piano—steam, like hot air, rises—and mistook it for smoke. In a panic she immediately called the fire department. When the fire trucks arrived and the firemen took one look at the piano with the steam rising up through the strings they immediately attacked the instrument with their fire axes and—well, let’s just say it all ended up rather messy.

As a result of this experience we are now restricting our research to include only hot air as a motive assist mechanism.

ddf
_________________________
Delwin D Fandrich
Piano Research, Design & Manufacturing Consultant
ddfandrich@gmail.com
(To contact me privately please use this e-mail address.)

Stupidity is a rare condition, ignorance is a common choice. --Anon

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#2057872 - 04/01/13 03:50 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
ando Online   content
3000 Post Club Member

Registered: 11/23/10
Posts: 3715
Loc: Melbourne, Australia
How about helium-filled hammers and shanks? That ought to get the touchweight down a bit... Although if it leaked, it might sound like a chipmonk piano...

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#2057906 - 04/01/13 04:52 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: BDB]
Del Offline
5000 Post Club Member

Registered: 09/04/03
Posts: 5335
Loc: Olympia, Washington
Originally Posted By: BDB
There would also be some minor redesign of the action necessary to accommodate the differing lengths of the shanks necessary. Epoxy and drilling only go so far. To maintain the same relationship throughout the range of the piano, eventually the shanks must double in length every octave. You might run into some problems fitting in the shanks for the lowest notes of the piano.

We've thought of that and, I think, solved the problem.

The patents held by Baldwin on extreme hammer strike points—up to 1/5 of the speaking length on the Model 6000 upright—have expired so it should be possible to move the hammer strike point back a few inches. With a SPR of 1/8th the hammer strikes about 9.9” (251 mm) from the agrafe assuming a speaking length of 79” (2007 mm) as is typical for a concert grand. Changing the SPR to 1/5th moves this back to 15.8” (401 mm). By itself this is not a huge amount but, since we are already used to angled action stacks in concert grand pianos we can always move the stack the other way—i.e., toward the pianist—and lengthen the shanks even further.

Since both of these design changes will increase the length of the hammershanks considerably—approximately 10.9” (277 mm)—we will also have to increase their diameter considerably to keep them from flexing too much. But this should actually be a benefit because the larger diameter tubing will also reduce the resonant frequency of the cavity. It shouldn’t be necessary to actually match the frequency of the fundamental; like aliquot tuning schemes a higher partial can be chosen.

Of course, this would require rebalancing the keys to keep the overall action ratio within the limits considered acceptable by most pianists. As well, some minor changes will also need to be made to the bellyrail and damper system but such is the price of progress.

ddf
_________________________
Delwin D Fandrich
Piano Research, Design & Manufacturing Consultant
ddfandrich@gmail.com
(To contact me privately please use this e-mail address.)

Stupidity is a rare condition, ignorance is a common choice. --Anon

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#2057907 - 04/01/13 04:56 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: ando]
Del Offline
5000 Post Club Member

Registered: 09/04/03
Posts: 5335
Loc: Olympia, Washington
Originally Posted By: ando
How about helium-filled hammers and shanks? That ought to get the touchweight down a bit... Although if it leaked, it might sound like a chipmonk piano...

No, no, hot air is the way to go. It is inexpensive and there is a never-ending supply.

I don't want to say too much about this because it touches on another project we are working on; that of storing the energy created by hot air for subsequent distribution to points around the country where it is needed. By our calculations just one hot air energy plant located near Washington, DC should be adequate to supply all of the energy needs of the country not just reducing our dependency on foreign oil but completely eliminating it.

ddf
_________________________
Delwin D Fandrich
Piano Research, Design & Manufacturing Consultant
ddfandrich@gmail.com
(To contact me privately please use this e-mail address.)

Stupidity is a rare condition, ignorance is a common choice. --Anon

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#2057932 - 04/01/13 05:18 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
Minnesota Marty Offline

Platinum Supporter until October 5 2014


Registered: 05/15/12
Posts: 7439
Loc: Rochester MN
Del,

If all of the hot air was simply harvested from the great expanse of the entire piano world, would that not meet the energy needs of all extant pianos?

Hot air is not just produced in the greater D.C. area. It is endless, right here, at home page.
_________________________
Marty in Minnesota

It's much easier to bash a Steinway than it is to play one.

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#2057938 - 04/01/13 05:26 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
ando Online   content
3000 Post Club Member

Registered: 11/23/10
Posts: 3715
Loc: Melbourne, Australia
Originally Posted By: Del
Originally Posted By: ando
How about helium-filled hammers and shanks? That ought to get the touchweight down a bit... Although if it leaked, it might sound like a chipmonk piano...

No, no, hot air is the way to go. It is inexpensive and there is a never-ending supply.

I don't want to say too much about this because it touches on another project we are working on; that of storing the energy created by hot air for subsequent distribution to points around the country where it is needed. By our calculations just one hot air energy plant located near Washington, DC should be adequate to supply all of the energy needs of the country not just reducing our dependency on foreign oil but completely eliminating it.

ddf


Well, you've clearly done your homework on this. Although I wouldn't discount the possibility of other hotish gases being involved. There is all sorts of stuff spewing out of Washington DC. You may well end up with the first smog-based piano.

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#2057972 - 04/01/13 06:06 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
Jon Page Offline
Full Member

Registered: 03/13/09
Posts: 397
Loc: Harwich Port, Cape Cod, Massac...
An important factor which has been ignored is the drag coefficient caused by the open ended tube disturbing the airflow, impeding the acceleration of the hammer. I'm setting up a wind tunnel in my garage to illustrate and quantify this effect. A side benefit of this process is cleaning the action of dust.
_________________________
Regards,

Jon Page
Piano technician/tuner
Harwich Port, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA
http://www.pianocapecod.com

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#2057976 - 04/01/13 06:18 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
Grandpianoman Offline
2000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/12/05
Posts: 2419
Loc: Portland, Oregon
I think you are all missing the obvious solution here.....hot air popcorn machine...tube it to all 88 shanks, and have it running when you play the piano. Noise factor a problem? Put the popper in another room. Problem solved!

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#2057982 - 04/01/13 06:28 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
Tunewerk Offline
Full Member

Registered: 03/26/11
Posts: 425
Loc: Boston, MA
Originally Posted By: Del
As a result of this experience we are now restricting our research to include only hot air as a motive assist mechanism.


It's good to see such a reliable and plentiful source of energy being considered for use in motive assist touchweight reduction. At this rate, given the amount of energy available, all pianos should have zero touchweight in no time!
_________________________
www.tunewerk.com

Unity of tone through applied research.

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#2058005 - 04/01/13 07:31 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
Minnesota Marty Offline

Platinum Supporter until October 5 2014


Registered: 05/15/12
Posts: 7439
Loc: Rochester MN
How about using Coke bottles for hammer shanks?
_________________________
Marty in Minnesota

It's much easier to bash a Steinway than it is to play one.

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#2058047 - 04/01/13 09:30 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
kpembrook Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 04/06/10
Posts: 1352
Loc: Michigan
Originally Posted By: Del
As a result of this experience we are now restricting our research to include only hot air as a motive assist mechanism.

ddf

And based on these posts there seems to be an adequate supply of that . . .
thumb laugh
_________________________
Keith Akins, RPT
USA Distributor for Isaac Cadenza hammers and Profundo Bass Strings
Supporting Piano Owners D-I-Y piano tuning and repair

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#2058083 - 04/01/13 10:58 PM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
Ed McMorrow, RPT Offline
2000 Post Club Member

Registered: 12/09/12
Posts: 2431
Loc: Seattle, WA USA
If you combined the flatulent alimentary canal output of DC Pols and pundits and PW posters-the energy supply approaches infinity according to Colberts' uncertainty theorem.
_________________________
In a seemingly infinite universe-infinite human creativity is-seemingly possible

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#2058106 - 04/02/13 12:09 AM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Minnesota Marty]
Dale Fox Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 10/17/04
Posts: 1083
Loc: Nor California Sacramento area
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
How about using Coke bottles for hammer shanks?


You may be on to something, Marty. I think the technology of using liquid tuned Coke bottles has been well established. In most states they are only worth 5 cents so they're cheap, too.
_________________________
Dale Fox
Registered Piano Technician
Remanufacturing/Rebuilding

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#2058581 - 04/03/13 07:55 AM Re: Resonant Hammershank Voicing [Re: Del]
David Boyce Offline
Full Member

Registered: 05/14/07
Posts: 293
Loc: Scotland
Some years ago most of the houses in my street had new roughcast applied to the exterior, and the open-ended tubular scaffold poles made nice noises in the wind (it was autumn) and I thought perhaps with care they could have been tuned by length.

In this worthy and august academic discussion, we should surely also mention the Blackpool High Tide Organ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackpool_High_Tide_Organ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QBJJ1jOc-7k
and the San Francisco Wave Organ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_Organ


Edited by David Boyce (04/03/13 07:57 AM)

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