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#2103436 - 06/16/13 05:20 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
Phil D Offline
500 Post Club Member

Registered: 01/15/10
Posts: 551
Loc: London, England
I find C# major to be the key that fits most easily under my hands. I love improvising in it. But reading it is a nightmare!
_________________________
Phil Dickson
The Cycling Piano Tuner

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#2103580 - 06/16/13 10:51 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Minnesota Marty]
Mwm Offline
500 Post Club Member

Registered: 02/20/13
Posts: 752
If you check rollingball.com, for example, most of the temperaments except ET show minimal temperament of intervals in keys near C and highest temperament in the keys near F# . It implies that C is the base for historic temperaments. All other historical documents I have read which give instructions on tuning use C as the starting point.

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#2103604 - 06/17/13 12:17 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
bkw58 Offline

Silver Supporter until December 19, 2014


Registered: 03/14/09
Posts: 1721
Loc: Conway, AR USA
It doesn't get any more subjective than this.

Most of us are taught first piano lessons in C major; accordingly, it becomes an auto-basis for sensing flat and sharp. Setting my ET to the C fork seemed like a natural - and it worked quite well - later extending to "between the breaks" - but C always remained the basis.
_________________________
Bob W.
Retired piano technician
Piano Technicę Blog

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#2103609 - 06/17/13 12:25 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
rxd Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/11/09
Posts: 1707
Loc: London, England
Just look at an UT and it will be readily apparent that the vast majority are centred on C.
Modern instructions for constructing a temperament only start on A because that is the note used for specifying pitch. They may start on A but are tonally centred mostly on C.
_________________________
Concert & Recording tuner-tech, London, England.
"in theory, practice and theory are the same thing. In practice, they're not." - Lawrence P. 'Yogi' Berra.

Eschew obfuscation.



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#2103612 - 06/17/13 12:29 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: rxd]
Bill Bremmer RPT Offline
3000 Post Club Member

Registered: 08/21/02
Posts: 3222
Loc: Madison, WI USA
Originally Posted By: rxd
I can't help wondering what to do if the pianos' musical voice keeps on demanding that it be tuned in reverse well????


Well, well, Reverse Well! I have been quite busy recently and had seen this topic but not had time to jump in. So, I am glad someone else gratuitously made the very first comment I might have. Most (9 in 10 at the least) aural tunings which one would swear on a stack of Bibles, a couple of Korans and a Torah to boot to be ET are in fact, Reverse Well!

I certainly did skip through all of the numbers postings because they mean nothing to me either. Surely, I recognize tuning program numeric data but all of the theoretical numbers are just that, numbers. What matters is what the piano is actually tuned to!

I find it an especially opportune time to say that what I have said all along is no joke. It is the unfortunate reality. I received an urgent call yesterday to tune a Steinway Model D for a concert today. (Sunday Concert Tuning!) The usual aural tuner not being available for a very regularly tuned instrument. What did I find? You guessed it, Reverse Well!

I temper that remark by saying that at least, this time, it was not a very blatant example of it, perhaps Victorian Reverse Well if there could be such a thing but I have often been quite surprised at how really Reverse some of the Reverse Well temperaments I have encountered could be!

And they were all deemed to be, believed to be, meant to be attempted to be, sworn to be, foot stomping madly proclaimed to be and paid for to be ET!

The reason why? One sole publication: Piano and Allied Arts by William Braide White. It should really be entitled, "A Recipe for Reverse Well" because that is what it truly is and has become. Surely not for every last piano technician, no.

The most enlightened of these found information elsewhere that facilitated the supplementary knowledge required to actually tune some semblance of ET but for most, the truncated instructions found on a couple of pages in the middle of the book were all that were ever studied or retained.

What is most important about that book was not what was in in it but what it deliberately left out! That was the infinitely large gap between 1/4 Comma Meantone (which was basically laughed at as being thoroughly useless) and the supposed ideal of the glorious ET! Complete freedom of modulation! AH! Each pitch unequivocally equidistant from the other! AH! The "Final Solution" AH!

Forget that all 16th Century music to the present is basically tonal. We need atonality! (So that maybe somebody might come along and play some kind of weird, atonal music and we would never hear it whenever they modulated). All key signatures should sound equal! We need to be able to play in ALL the keys, not just some! (And to do that, we must destroy all semblance of key color). A neutral palette. AH! One where all expression is either louder faster or slower and softer but NEVER from key signature!

The unfortunate result is that from the single minded, heck bent orientation to complete equality of temperament, the favoring and desire for a pure fifth has prevailed. Since that pure fifth cannot exist entirely throughout the circle of fifths, it is placed on the OPPOSITE side of the circle of fifths from where it had been in all Well Tempered Tunings!

Most piano technicians today have no knowledge whatsoever about what a Well Tempered Tuning really is. All they know is that they would never do that. Unfortunately what they also don't know is that in the quest for a purer sounding fifth, they inevitably create the unintended and unrecognized MONSTER known as Reverse Well!

Reverse Well is tuned in homes, churches, schools, piano dealerships and concert halls everywhere. It has been throughout the entire 20th Century. People have grown up with pianos tuned in Reverse Well! Not just in certain places but everywhere! They have become accustomed to a kind of atonality imposed by reverse tonality. Everything sounds out of tune and that is the norm! In recent years, it is only the ETD that has curtailed that trend.

We can go back to William Braid White and thank him for at least one thing, his suggestion that we all buy a Strobe Tuner! Since very few people could ever really tune a true ET following his instructions, the Strobe Tuner might be the best we could actually do!

Thankfully, it took the work of the late Dr. Al Sanderson (a Harvard University Scientist) in compilation with a man who actually understood aural tuning, Mr. Bill Garlick, RPT (former instructor at the North Bennett Street School of Piano Technology and subsequently as the Education Director at the Steinway Factory in New York) to actually facilitate the tuning of ET with the use of an ETD so that the majority of people who tune pianos could actually produce a temperament that is not in fact, Reverse Well!

Recently (in the past few weeks), I have been dismayed to read on the PTG Tuning Examiner exclusive blog about examiners not being able to find other RPT's who know the most basic of ET tuning checks! All otherwise well qualified technicians have abandoned aural tuning altogether and forgotten any aural tuning checks for ET they may have once known and practiced!

It all boils down to a definition of ET that does not match the science of it it any way, shape or form! All of the theoretical numbers produced on previous pages here are candles in the wind! They bear no relationship whatsoever to what piano technicians actually do on a day to day basis, not even to what the best of us do when we perform our finest work!

That is not to say that theoretical calculations are useless, it is only to say that when it comes down to it as a practical matter they will be completely ignored!

For a period of about 20 years, I refused entirely to tune any piano in ET! If ET had really and truly been a requirement, I would have either been out of business very shortly or forced to change course. What I found instead was that the majority of my clients found a Well Tempered Tuning to be more musically satisfying. That extended to professional artists and concert stages as well.

Today, I believe that any piano technician should have a versatile and adaptable set of skills and techniques to be able to respond to any request or demand from a client. I truly believe in the power of Cycle of 5ths based temperament. There is no doubt about that in my mind. I worked for many years to perfect a system that worked and could be easily replicated. I have many enthusiasts and followers of that system.

Whether anyone uses the Well Temperament system I developed or not, is not my primary concern. There are many Well Temperaments, Meantone and Modified Meantone temperaments available. The temperament I am most well known for was designed mostly for ease of replication but as it turns out, the Equal Beating properties it has have their own specific benefits. I also use other temperaments when I sense the need for them. I respond as well for specific requests for a specific temperament.

To say that one will use only one method, one temperament, one amount of octave stretch on EVERY piano, regardless of circumstances to me is self-limiting to the point of being self destructive! Pianos are by their very nature different, one from another. The way in which they are used and enjoyed is also different from one circumstance to another.

It simply does not make sense to impose a "one size fits all" policy on each of them. It makes far less sense to impose a misguided attempt at ET that results in Reverse Well on any of them!
_________________________
Bill Bremmer RPT
Madison WI USA
www.billbremmer.com

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#2103645 - 06/17/13 02:13 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
BDB Online   content
Yikes! 10000 Post Club Member

Registered: 06/07/03
Posts: 21509
Loc: Oakland
It seems odd that someone would spend 1300 words writing about something that most of his customers apparently cannot differentiate.

There are so many other things that go wrong with pianos. It seems a shame to waste so much energy on temperament, which is no more than a preference.
_________________________
Semipro Tech

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#2103686 - 06/17/13 05:51 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
Olek Offline
7000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/14/08
Posts: 7537
Loc: France
Based on C

That said older music I (mean before Internet) is played with A=415 Hz , half a tone lower.
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#2103688 - 06/17/13 05:57 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: rxd]
Olek Offline
7000 Post Club Member

Registered: 03/14/08
Posts: 7537
Loc: France
Originally Posted By: rxd


That would be almost like saying I do what the voices in my head are telling me.
.
the string winder that is dictating the parameters and, depending how old the piano is, quite possibly from beyond the grave!!!



Phew ! I did not realize, the situation begins to be severe wink.

An interesting movie could be done "a journey in the head of the piano tuner" !!! (really ! no joking, that would be an instructive document for apprentice, some may understand it may be necessary to know about some music to be a piano tuner)

your phrasing made me smile right !
_________________________
It is critical that you call your Senators and Representatives and ask them to cosponsor S. 2587 and H.R. 5052. Getting your legislators to cosponsor these bills


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#2103705 - 06/17/13 07:05 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Minnesota Marty]
Mark R. Offline
2000 Post Club Member

Registered: 07/31/09
Posts: 2001
Loc: Pretoria, South Africa
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
G-Maj. and F-Maj. are the second easiest keys and they are pretty far from C.


Am I missing something? G and F are as close to C as one can get.
_________________________
Autodidact interested in piano technology.

1922 49" Zimmermann, project piano.
1970 44" Ibach, daily music maker.

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#2103718 - 06/17/13 07:52 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Olek]
Mwm Offline
500 Post Club Member

Registered: 02/20/13
Posts: 752
Originally Posted By: Olek
Based on C

That said older music I (mean before Internet) is played with A=415 Hz , half a tone lower.






We perform French Baroque music at A=392 Hz.

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#2103719 - 06/17/13 07:56 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Mark R.]
Mwm Offline
500 Post Club Member

Registered: 02/20/13
Posts: 752
Originally Posted By: Mark R.
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
G-Maj. and F-Maj. are the second easiest keys and they are pretty far from C.


Am I missing something? G and F are as close to C as one can get.

Actually, on a modern piano they are both about 7cm away from C. C# is much closer, being only 1cm away. It is surprising that more pieces weren't written in C# in the Baroque era.
Regards.

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#2103735 - 06/17/13 08:45 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: BDB]
Minnesota Marty Offline

Platinum Supporter until October 5 2014


Registered: 05/15/12
Posts: 7401
Loc: Rochester MN
Originally Posted By: BDB
It seems odd that someone would spend 1300 words writing about something that most of his customers apparently cannot differentiate.

It seems odd that someone would take the time to count the words in a post.
_________________________
Marty in Minnesota

It's much easier to bash a Steinway than it is to play one.

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#2103736 - 06/17/13 08:48 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Mark R.]
Minnesota Marty Offline

Platinum Supporter until October 5 2014


Registered: 05/15/12
Posts: 7401
Loc: Rochester MN
Originally Posted By: Mark R.
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
G-Maj. and F-Maj. are the second easiest keys and they are pretty far from C.


Am I missing something? G and F are as close to C as one can get.

You are missing the fact that I am referring to keyboard location and that they are the next easiest keys for a pianist to play.

Playing a Theremin solves the problem completely and never needs to be tuned!
_________________________
Marty in Minnesota

It's much easier to bash a Steinway than it is to play one.

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#2103737 - 06/17/13 08:56 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Minnesota Marty]
RonTuner Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 01/21/04
Posts: 1658
Loc: Chicagoland
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
Mwm,

The preponderance of compositions in the keys you list is the ease of performance, rather than tuning temperament. It's where beginning students start, and for the overwhelming majority of pianists, it is still the comfort zone. G-Maj. and F-Maj. are the second easiest keys and they are pretty far from C.



When you think of key signatures in the order of the circle of fifths, then C is right between G and F! Does that clear this up?
_________________________
Piano/instrument technician
www.ronkoval.com
@ronkoval

my piano videos:
http://www.youtube.com/profile_videos?user=drwoodwind


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#2103738 - 06/17/13 09:01 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: RonTuner]
Minnesota Marty Offline

Platinum Supporter until October 5 2014


Registered: 05/15/12
Posts: 7401
Loc: Rochester MN
Originally Posted By: RonTuner
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
Mwm,

The preponderance of compositions in the keys you list is the ease of performance, rather than tuning temperament. It's where beginning students start, and for the overwhelming majority of pianists, it is still the comfort zone. G-Maj. and F-Maj. are the second easiest keys and they are pretty far from C.



When you think of key signatures in the order of the circle of fifths, then C is right between G and F! Does that clear this up?

I am not talking about the circle of fifths. I'm talking about the damn keyboard. Read what I wrote!
_________________________
Marty in Minnesota

It's much easier to bash a Steinway than it is to play one.

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#2103748 - 06/17/13 09:38 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
Mwm Offline
500 Post Club Member

Registered: 02/20/13
Posts: 752
OK people. Calm down. We are likely talking at cross purposes here. A discussion of ET,WT,UT always seems to degenerate by this point. I too contribute to that sad decline.

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#2103763 - 06/17/13 10:14 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
Phil D Offline
500 Post Club Member

Registered: 01/15/10
Posts: 551
Loc: London, England
All discussion of ET/UT tends to degenerate from the first post. Loren is well aware of this - some people just love the controversy!
_________________________
Phil Dickson
The Cycling Piano Tuner

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#2103764 - 06/17/13 10:16 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Minnesota Marty]
Ed Foote Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 05/03/03
Posts: 1160
Loc: Tennessee
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
Originally Posted By: RonTuner
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
Mwm,
The preponderance of compositions in the keys you list is the ease of performance, rather than tuning temperament. It's where beginning students start, and for the overwhelming majority of pianists, it is still the comfort zone. G-Maj. and F-Maj. are the second easiest keys and they are pretty far from C.

When you think of key signatures in the order of the circle of fifths, then C is right between G and F! Does that clear this up?

I am not talking about the circle of fifths. I'm talking about the damn keyboard. Read what I wrote!


Greetings,
When we talk about distance between keys in a temperament discussion, it is generally accepted that we are not talking about physical distance between the keys, but the distance around the circle off fifths, ie, F# is as far from C as possible, and almost as far from F. This position in the circle correlates to the width of the tonic third.

The majority of piano music is written in keys that are closer to C than F#. If you compile the usage charts, you will see that C was the most commonly used key, F and G are second, and D and Bb follow them in use. This progression continues through all the keys, with B, F#, C# being the least used. This holds true for Schubert, Mozart, Beethoven, and most others. Chopin is the exception, but only in the polarity, his usage of the keys is almost exactly opposite all the others.

If we plot the prevalence of keys's use through the ages, we find that in the Meantone era, 1300-1700, the eight keys closest to C were virtually all that was used, clear evidence of the restrictive wolf in that 1/4 C tuning. Beginning around 1700, or perhaps a few decades before, we begin to see a more democratic use, as the circulating tunings came into use. This use was still lopsided, with the remote keys being rarely used. The usage becomes gradually more democratic over the next 200 years, and by the 1900's there was little pattern or correlation between the temperament and the key's selection. I suspect that as music left the strict tonal forms of the Classical era behind, the UT's value and influence faded, and ET became more prevalent.

Beethoven actually preferred Eb more than any other key, and I suspect that harmonically, it offered a wider palette for modulation, in that moving in one direction heightened musical tension, while going the other way entered very calm spaces. In most WT, Eb (and A) are virtually identical to ET, and for LVB, Eb could possibly have been the harmonic home base that was easiest to start from.
Regards,

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#2103765 - 06/17/13 10:21 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
bkw58 Offline

Silver Supporter until December 19, 2014


Registered: 03/14/09
Posts: 1721
Loc: Conway, AR USA
Contending for a point without becoming contentious is a challenge for us all - especially on Monday mornings. smile
_________________________
Bob W.
Retired piano technician
Piano Technicę Blog

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#2103795 - 06/17/13 11:30 AM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Minnesota Marty]
Mark R. Offline
2000 Post Club Member

Registered: 07/31/09
Posts: 2001
Loc: Pretoria, South Africa
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
Originally Posted By: BDB
It seems odd that someone would spend 1300 words writing about something that most of his customers apparently cannot differentiate.

It seems odd that someone would take the time to count the words in a post.


10 seconds of copying and pasting is all it takes - even the most basic word processor has a word counting tool.

But I'm sure BDB didn't know this, and counted through Bill's post by hand. smile

P.S.: When learning the piano, I never progressed from C major to B major or C# major just because they were the "closest" on the (damn) keyboard. Perhaps my teacher was wrong to let me progress more or less along the circle of fifths? Pity she isn't alive anymore, otherwise I'd demand my parents' money back. wink
_________________________
Autodidact interested in piano technology.

1922 49" Zimmermann, project piano.
1970 44" Ibach, daily music maker.

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#2103808 - 06/17/13 12:07 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
BDB Online   content
Yikes! 10000 Post Club Member

Registered: 06/07/03
Posts: 21509
Loc: Oakland
It does not take 10 seconds nor cutting nor pasting. I used an OS X service to give me the statistics for the selection.
_________________________
Semipro Tech

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#2103816 - 06/17/13 12:28 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
Minnesota Marty Offline

Platinum Supporter until October 5 2014


Registered: 05/15/12
Posts: 7401
Loc: Rochester MN
Let me try this again.

* Beginning piano students, especially children, are not taught the circle of fifths before they learn that the key of G has one sharp.

* A piano teacher does not teach beginning students the key of F or G because the teacher understands the harmonic relation within the circle of fifths.

* Those keys are the next easiest to learn to play, that is the only reason they are taught in that sequence.

* It happens before any discussion of major or minor keys. Accidentals are still further down the road. No, the F# in the key of G-Major is not an accidental.

* It certainly has nothing to do with temperament.

I posted that I asked for one of my pianos to be tuned in a non-equal temperament using A-442 as the basis for the setting of the temperament octave. Though my tuner was hesitant, he did what I asked. He knew me, my pianistic skills, and I had the checkbook. (Sorry to be so crass)

The reason I wanted to try this is because I have a great deal of experience as an orchestral instrumentalist, as well as a pianist. As I stated previously, orchestral musicians temper their concept of key color from A as being the center, not from C.

I used the example of playing a concerto in G-Major on a piano which had a non-equal temperament based on A. This shifts the whole key color (aural) identification. It becomes more natural to the ear of orchestral musicians than does a non-equal temperament based on C.

To be honest, it doesn't matter at all about the history of tuning temperaments on fixed pitch instruments, such as the piano. It was nothing more than a request, an attempt, to more closely match one of my pianos to how I hear key color (temperament) as expressed in orchestral performance. It is a departure from standard practice which achieved it's goal.

For those of you who are comfortable tuning in non-equal temperaments, you might give it a try and make your own assessment on the results.
_________________________
Marty in Minnesota

It's much easier to bash a Steinway than it is to play one.

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#2103824 - 06/17/13 12:38 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
UnrightTooner Offline
4000 Post Club Member

Registered: 11/13/08
Posts: 4936
Loc: Bradford County, PA
All:

If you want just intonation with fixed pitch instruments, you can only have a few notes. (Work it out yourself.) And if you want just intonation with changeable pitched intruments (or voice), you can have only major and minor triads - no sixths or sevenths. Only the simpliest music can be in just intonation. What some may consider to be just intonation is the real compromise. I see nothing in ET that is a compromise. Equal is equal, not a compromise.
_________________________
Jeff Deutschle
Part-Time Tuner
Who taught the first chicken how to peck?

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#2103825 - 06/17/13 12:41 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: UnrightTooner]
BDB Online   content
Yikes! 10000 Post Club Member

Registered: 06/07/03
Posts: 21509
Loc: Oakland
Originally Posted By: UnrightTooner
All:

If you want just intonation with fixed pitch instruments, you can only have a few notes.


Or a whole bunch. Harry Partch used 69 notes per octave.
_________________________
Semipro Tech

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#2103857 - 06/17/13 01:39 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Mwm]
Mwm Offline
500 Post Club Member

Registered: 02/20/13
Posts: 752
Originally Posted By: Mwm
Originally Posted By: Mark R.
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
G-Maj. and F-Maj. are the second easiest keys and they are pretty far from C.


Am I missing something? G and F are as close to C as one can get.

Actually, on a modern piano they are both about 7cm away from C. C# is much closer, being only 1cm away. It is surprising that more pieces weren't written in C# in the Baroque era.
Regards.

I do hope that those of you who mentioned the physical distance of keys from C realized that I was joking.

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#2103859 - 06/17/13 01:41 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
Mwm Offline
500 Post Club Member

Registered: 02/20/13
Posts: 752
It is possible to play a DP in just intonation using Justonics software. You tell the software where the modulations are, and how you want to shift to occur. Then when you play the work, it adjusts the pitch of each note/chord on the fly. Very cool.

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#2103874 - 06/17/13 02:29 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Minnesota Marty]
Mark R. Offline
2000 Post Club Member

Registered: 07/31/09
Posts: 2001
Loc: Pretoria, South Africa
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
As I stated previously, orchestral musicians temper their concept of key color from A as being the center, not from C.


My checkbook isn't nearly as expansive as yours, but I've played in five symphony orchestras, albeit provincial ones, for the better part of 20 years.

If (IF!!) this assertion of yours were true, it would mean that A major represents the most "well" key. It would further mean that each of these pairs are equally "colored":
E major (+1, 4 sharps) and D Major (-1, 2 sharps)
B major (+2, 5 sharps) and G major (-2, 1 sharp)
F# major (+3, 6 sharps) and C major (-3, no sharps/flats)
C# major (+4, 7 sharps) and F major (-4, 1 flat)
G# major (+5, 8 sharps) and Bb major (-5, 2 flats)

Truth be told, I have never heard of such a notion.
_________________________
Autodidact interested in piano technology.

1922 49" Zimmermann, project piano.
1970 44" Ibach, daily music maker.

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#2103886 - 06/17/13 02:57 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Loren D]
Minnesota Marty Offline

Platinum Supporter until October 5 2014


Registered: 05/15/12
Posts: 7401
Loc: Rochester MN
Well Mark R., that means that you heard "such a notion" here first. Congratulations!

In all five of your provincial orchestras, to what note did you tune?

That is the choice I made with my own piano. It works well.
_________________________
Marty in Minnesota

It's much easier to bash a Steinway than it is to play one.

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#2103953 - 06/17/13 04:59 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Minnesota Marty]
Mwm Offline
500 Post Club Member

Registered: 02/20/13
Posts: 752
Originally Posted By: Minnesota Marty
Well Mark R., that means that you heard "such a notion" here first. Congratulations!

In all five of your provincial orchestras, to what note did you tune?

That is the choice I made with my own piano. It works well.

Marty,
I think we may not be on the same page here. Are you saying that you could or would play Mozart Piano Concerto Op. 5, No. 4 in E flat on a piano using 1/4 comma meantone based on A? If you do, you will playing with the tonic on the 'wolf'. Even using just about any other WT, such as Young 1799, which would work beautifully with orchestra based on C, but would still be fairly wild based on A. Your thoughts?

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#2103986 - 06/17/13 06:18 PM Re: Equal temperament [Re: Mwm]
DoelKees Offline
1000 Post Club Member

Registered: 05/01/10
Posts: 1721
Loc: Vancouver, Canada
Originally Posted By: Mwm
Originally Posted By: Olek
Based on C

That said older music I (mean before Internet) is played with A=415 Hz , half a tone lower.






We perform French Baroque music at A=392 Hz.

And Italian early baroque a minor third higher.

Kees

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